Pediatric Radiology > Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

    Pediatric Radiology

    1. Know the components of the pediatric CXR study.
    2. Know the approach to reading a pediatric CXR.
    3. Identify pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoperitoneum.
    4. Identify the medical causes of respiratory distress syndrome (transient tachypnea, meconium aspiration, neonatal pneumonia, and respiratory distress syndrome).
    5. Identify the surgical causes of respiratory distress syndrome (congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, congenital lobar emphysema, and sequestration).
    6. Identify laryngomalacia, acute epiglottitis, croup, and retropharyngeal abscess.
    7. Identify and classify pulmonary inflammatory disease.


    1. Identify the radiographic features of esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, duodenal atresia, jejunal-ileal atresia, meconium ileus, meconium plug syndrome, hirschsprung disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis.
    2. Identify the radiographic features of esophageal foreign bodies, esophageal stricture, and hypertonic pyloric stenosis.
    3. Identify the radiographic features of malrotation, midgut volvulus, Meckel’s diverticulum, appendicitis, and intussusception colonic atresia.
    4. Identify the radiographic features of biliary atresia, neonate hepatitis, choledochal cyst.


    1. Know how to identify and grade vesicoureteral reflux.
    2. Identify cystic renal diseases (autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). 
    3. Identify congenital urinary abnormalities.
    4. Identify hydronephrosis and its causes.
    5. Identify genitourinary tumors.


    1. Identify common types of pediatric trauma.
    2. Identify common pediatric hip abnormalities and pathologies.
    3. Identify common pediatric lower extremity abnormalities.
    4. Identify benign pediatric musculoskeletal lesions.
    5. Identify aggressive pediatric musculoskeletal lesions.
    6. Identify congenital orthopedic disorders.
    7. Identify metabolic disorders on traditional radiographic studies.


    1. Know the normal appearance of a pediatric head US.
    2. Identify germinal matrix hemorrhage and its grade.
    3. Identify neurological developmental abnormalities on radiographic studies.
    4. Identify neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Sturge-Weber syndrome.
    5. Identify TORCH syndrome, encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, meningitis, and cysticercosis.
    6.  Identify cerebellar astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, and ependymoma.
    7. Identify craniopharyngioma, suprasellar astrocytoma, hypothalamic hamartoma, and germ cell tumors
    8. Identify pineocytoma and pineoblastoma, germinoma, and tectal glioma
    9. Identify intraventricular and hemispheric supratentorial tumors.


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