Radiobiology > Stochastic Effects > Carcinogenesis > Introduction



Unlike heritable risk from radiation exposure, some human data do exist to establish cancer risk. Nevertheless, most analyses utilize the cohort of Japanese atomic bombing survivors for extrapolating low-dose exposure risk. 

Amongst bombing victims, the thyroid is the solid organ most sensitive to radiation-induced benign and malignant tumors. Excess breast cancer risk is also clearly observed in such radiation-exposed populations. Statistical noise prevents direct assessment of human risk for exposures below 50 mSv.


The primary organizations concerned with reporting risk estimates radiation-induced carcinogenesis:

  • UN Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
  • National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)

Organizations concerned with radiation protection standards:

  • International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
  • National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements (NCRP)

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